Newspapers a great example of journalism as each story is dated and located. Any journal qualifies from a notebook in any research area that dates the notes gives more weight to the events as they unfolded. Professional journalists focus more on facts while armchair journalists present facts without the rigors of proof. journalistic media include print, television, radio, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels.
Burke’s 1787 coining would have been making reference to the traditional three estates of Parliament: The Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal and the Commons. The Fourth Estate or fourth power refers to the press and news media both in explicit capacity of advocacy and implicit ability to frame political issues. Though it is not formally recognized as a part of a political system, it wields significant indirect social influence. During the American Revolution, this fourth estate was crucial for the process of distributing information, with the medium being newspapers.
In 1580 Montaigne proposed that governments should hold in check a fourth estate of lawyers selling justice to the rich and denying it to rightful litigants who do not bribe their way to a verdict. In the United States government’s Department of Defense, the “fourth estate” (also called the “back office”) refers to 28 agencies that do not fall under the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Some less known examples include the Defense Technology Security Administration, Defense Technical Information Center, and Defense Information Systems Agency.
While the grade 8 notebooks are piling up they do tell a story in primary school. intermediate school, junior high school, senior high school, undergraduate, master and even a doctorate. Grade 12 leads to university for 4 more years for a bachelor degree and a subsequent 2 years for a masters. Doctorate is a demanding 4 year program. The education degree is 2 years above an undergraduate while law requires three years.
The cost of more advanced education is what is driving inequality. University costs $300 or so a year for tuition and books are not cheap. Apparently Nixon turned down a free education at Harvard because of family obligations. Not much is known about vice president Spiro Agnew outside a few newspaper clips in weekend editions.
Fact Checking is a discipline of its own. Photographs can take a record of an event which shows familiarity. In many ways political journalism is a profession of its own right. Libraries have several books on journalism for those who want to learn how to be more sophisticated,
Medical journals are more complex by necessity. Evidently several university research positions are maintained by government contracts. The US tends to be a hybrid public private solutions. The tobacco industry sponsored a staggering amount of research into the plant including advanced biochemistry. The spin offs revolutionized agriculture.