THE COMPLEXITY OF THEOREM PROVING PROCEDURES

Steve Cook published The Complexity of Theorem Proving Procedures which definitely was eye opening.

It is shown that any recognition problem solved by a polynomial time-bounded nondeterministic Turing machine can be reduced to the problem of determining whether a given propositional formula is a tautology. Here reduced means, roughly speaking, that the first problem can be solved deterministically in polynomial time provided an oracle is available for solving the second. From this notion of reducible, polynomial degrees of difficulty are defined, and it is shown that the problem of determining tautology hood has the same polynomial degree as the problem of determining whether the first of two given graphs is isomorphic to a subgraph of the second. Other examples are discussed. A method of measuring the complexity of proof procedures for the predicate calculus is introduced and discussed. Throughout this paper, a set of strings means a set of strings on some fixed, large, finite alphabet Σ. This alphabet is large enough to include symbols for all sets described here. All Turing machines are deterministic recognition devices, unless the contrary is explicitly stated.

Any polynomial time reduction and NP-completeness, and proved the existence of an NP-complete problem by showing that the Boolean satisfiability problem (usually known as SAT) is NP-complete.