The Ada Programming Language and several mainframe configurations were developed. Use of SQL was one of the capabilities developed. US government agencies working with major Universities have worked hard to improve on the systems as well as with programming them. Universities and IBM all worked hard to develop new systems.

  • STRAWMAN issued in April 1975
  • WOODENMAN issued in August 1975
  • TINMAN issued in January 1976
  • IRONMAN issued in January 1977 (revised in July 1977)
  • SANDMAN not published but circulated in January 1978
  • STEELMAN issued in June 1978
  • PEBBLEMAN issued in July 1978
  • PEBBLEMAN Revised and issued in January 1979
  • STONEMAN issued in February 1980

The U.S. Department of Defense Common High Order Language program was initiated in 1975 with the goal of establishing a single high order language for new DoD embedded computer systems. We are now approaching that goal. A significant reduction in the number of languages approved for new systems was achieved through the issuance of DoD Instruction 5000.31 in November 1976, the technical requirements for the common language were finalized in the Steelman report of June 1978, the preliminary language design was completed and named Ada in June 1979, and extensive test and evaluation of the design has just been completed. The effort thus far has been coordinated through the High Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) of the DoD Management Steering Committee for Embedded Computer Resources.

STRAWMAN et al are all mainframe and database oriented architectures. Primarily disk based storage was the ideal storage choice with the database. Using a tiered approach slowly became more important with IBM DB2. With enough RAM the database can application can run on the same mainframe as the presentation as long as the operating system is capable enough. UNIX at Bell labs has been developed on a PDP-11. IBM has a large development team.

The earliest distributions of UNIX from Bell Labs in the 1970s included the source code to the operating system, allowing researchers at universities to modify and extend Unix. The operating system arrived at Berkeley in 1974, at the request of computer science professor Bob Fabry who had been on the program committee for the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles where Unix was first presented. A PDP-11/45 was bought to run the system, but for budgetary reasons, this machine was shared with the mathematics and statistics groups at Berkeley, who used RSTS, so that UNIX only ran on the machine eight hours per day (sometimes during the day, sometimes during the night). A larger PDP-11/70 was installed at Berkeley the following year, using money from the Ingres database project.

In the next few months Ada will be added to the DoD list of approved languages, the HOLWG will be replaced by a permanent Ada Language Control Board (ALCB), and national and international standards are planned. The final phase of refinement of the language design will be completed and issued in July 1980. Development of an Ada Compiler Validation Capability (ACVC) was begun in September 1979, and multiply targeted production compilers are planned by the Army and Air Force with work to begin in March and July 1980 respectively.

It was recognized from the beginning that the major benefits to DoD from a common language would be economic and would derive from Ada’s appropriateness to military applications, from the portability that comes with a machine independent language, from the availability of software resulting from acceptance of the language for nonmilitary applications, and most importantly from the use of Ada as a mechanism for introducing and distributing effective software development and support environments to those developing and evolving military systems.

The Ada effort is now at a major transition point as the emphasis shifts from the language design to its introduction and use. The Stoneman is the first major accomplishment of this new phase. The Stoneman paints a broad picture of the needs and identifies the relationships of the parts of an integrated Ada Program Support Environment (APSE). It develops a model which reflects an understanding of both the realities of current practice and a realistic appraisal of the possibilities for more effective software development and support environments. It calls for the integration of conventional software tools into a framework that is sufficiently open ended to accommodate a wide variety of programming methodologies and automated software tools currently unavailable or unused in military systems.


Thr PAVE PAWS phase arrayed radar recently installed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts is able to spot a piece of metal the size of a grapefruit at 3,000 miles. The radar uses three large mainframes to handle the data processing. The radar does not sweep in favor of phase shifting of the transmitters. By using out of alignment phase the effect of a mechanical sweep is done using hundreds of transceivers. With no moving parts, the maintenance costs are reduced.

In a simple array antenna, the radio frequency current from the transmitter is fed to the individual antennas with the correct phase relationship so that the radio waves from the separate antennas add together to increase the radiation in a desired direction and cancel to suppress radiation in undesired directions. In a phased array, the power from the transmitter is fed to the antennas through devices called phase shifters, controlled by a computer system, which can alter the phase electronically, thus steering the beam of radio waves to a different direction. Since the array must consist of many small antennas (sometimes thousands) to achieve high gain, phased arrays are mainly practical at the high frequency end of the radio spectrum, in the UHF and microwave bands, in which the antenna elements are conveniently small.

Each panel on the radar can span 120 degrees so using two panels provides 240 degree views.