Intel has introduced some new logic for advanced analytic work. Many advanced problems need random numbers over and above the needs of a game engine. RDSEED and RDRAND offer much for everyone.
- Each new value must be statistically independent of the previous value. That is, given a generated sequence of values, a particular value is not more likely to follow after it as the next value in the RNG’s random sequence.
- The overall distribution of numbers chosen from the interval is uniformly distributed. In other words, all numbers are equally likely and none are more “popular” or appear more frequently within the RNG’s output than others.
- The sequence is unpredictable. An attacker cannot guess some or all of the values in a generated sequence. Predictability may take the form of forward prediction (future values) and backtracking (past values).
The Digital Random Number Generator (DRNG) is an innovative hardware approach to high-quality, high-performance entropy and random number generation. It is composed of the new Intel 64 Architecture instructions RDRAND and RDSEED and an underlying DRNG hardware implementation.
RDRAND retrieves a hardware-generated random value from the SP800-90A compliant DRGB and stores it in the destination register given as an argument to the instruction. The size of the random value (16-, 32-, or 64-bits) is determined by the size of the register given. The carry flag (CF) must be checked to determine whether a random value was available at the time of instruction execution.
Note that RDRAND is available to any system or application software running on the platform. That is, there are no hardware ring requirements that restrict access based on process privilege level. As such, RDRAND may be invoked as part of an operating system or hypervisor system library, a shared software library, or directly by an application.
To determine programmatically whether a given Intel platform supports RDRAND, developers can use the CPUID instruction to examine bit 30 of the ECX register.
RDSEED retrieves a hardware-generated random seed value from the SP800-90B and C compliant ENRNG and stores it in the destination register given as an argument to the instruction. Like the RDRAND instruction, the size of the random value is determined by the size of the given register, and the carry flag (CF) must be checked to determine whether or not a random seed was available at the time the instruction was executed.
Also like RDRAND, there are no hardware ring requirements that restrict access to RDSEED based on process privilege level.
To determine programmatically whether a given Intel platform supports the RDSEED instruction, developers can use the CPUID instruction to examine bit 18 of the EBX register.