ATSC AND 4K

HDTV uses the ATSC standards for broadcast television. The standard is constrained by the old analog 6 MHz channels.

DV

MiviDV tapes via Firewire can handle NTSC, PAL, SECAM and ATSC. Many channels are using 1280x720p but sports and news channels are using 1920x1080i. In short, Firewire hardware is low cost and abundant.

DV has been popular with television as it makes automated systems seen with cable channels possible. BD disks have slowly ramped up but the it will take a while to displace the entrenched DVD libraries.

Today DVD disks are very low cost and they are mass produced overwhelming VHS tapes. Large numbers of disks are now seen in thrift stores along with compact disks. Not many BD disks are seen yet.

FILM

Professional 4K cameras use digital storage and SDI connections to edit equipment etc. Film editing is more expensive as it requires SDI cards to interface with tape machines and cameras etc.

The move to 8K has required studios to retrofit their systems. 12G-SDI cards typically need PCIe x8 slots with PCI Express 3.0 speeds or faster. 8K LCD panels are readily available for editing.

Red 8K cameras and equipment will cost upwards of $500,000 for a basic setup and upwards of $2 million for a studio. The camera uses a solid state “film pack” which has enough storage for the entire work day. The memory packs can then be imported into an editing system and returned to set for more shooting.

Camera dollies and rails etc are needed to handle the range of shots. The Cinema mount is needed for the basics. Then lens mounts are needed etc.

Modern consumer cameras now use solid state memory. SD card speeds have become fast enough to handle 3840×2260 video. SD card capacity has grown considerably to the benefit of consumers.

There are lots of cards for the PC so editing and compositing are practical. A close look at specifications is needed to be sure the hardware is suitable.

USB editing controllers are available but these tend to be specialized to a particular software package. Before digital, frame accurate tape was able to be copied literally frame by frame. MiniDV is natively digital and it can be imported at real-time so copying tapes is fast and efficient.

4K film is now being sold on BDXL discs to consumers. Television has to rely on downsampled material to handle this in real-time.

TOOLS

Avid is the gold standard for television and film compositing. Corel Photo Paint Pro and Pinnacle Studio are less expensive choices. Adobe is expensive and unsuitable.

Open source has Audacity and Blender which offer more options for film.