There are two classes of USB M.2 cases in the market. The lowest cost units are SATA based while the more expensive units are PCIe based. The new NVMe variants are able to read the modern PCIe SSD units properly.
The older version with the USB 3.0 connector are not compatible with NVMe SSD products. These older models are designed for SATA hardware.
The unit shown is USB-C based but it comes with a USB-A cable for legacy connections. The MacBook has a USB-C port so a standard USB-C cable can be used.
The advantage of the USB case is obvious when doing a capacity upgrade and there is a desire to clone an existing setup.
The USB M.2 is not such a wise idea for mobile use as they tend to become damaged quite easily. Conventional USB devices are much more suitable.
Windows recognizes USB devices so Acronis and Clonezilla can easily copy a given system to a new device. Then the new unit can be swapped out and is all goes well it should POST fine.