2TB USB STICK ERRORS

colors of usb sticks

Windows back up file history spawned some errors so I have moved history to a different disk. I formatted the USB stick again with NTFS and it does take 30 seconds to format it. Originally the stick came formatted with exFAT which is a recent development and it is not widely supported. My television can recognize NTFS but it cannot recognize exFAT media.

The box of USB sticks has grown over time and some of the recent models larger than 32GB have been problematic. Most are simply to slow. Some series however are categorically bad. The first 2TB USB stick failed after some 2 weeks of use, the stick failed when copying some video files for testing on the TV set.

Windows is now checking this series of USB stick in the background. Windows is likely to do a full integrity check to find out what caused the errors.

File history rached about 160GB before the errors surfaced, CHKDSK could not correct the errors. Reformatting was successful. Copying the EGTB folder for computer chess should be interesting as it is 1.12TB of incompressible data.

FLASH TESTER

Next up is the flash tester tool that is an old favorite as flash memory errors have been a problem for decades.

00:12:40.97 – ——————————– New test process started ——————————–
00:12:42.53 – Started “Writing test data” for drive N: 1999999MB, “VendorCo, ProductCode, 2.00, “, 512b
00:14:24.01 – ! Write recoverable (1/3) error at LBN = 2087424 — The semaphore timeout period has expired. (121.)
00:14:37.98 – ! Write recoverable (1/3) error at LBN = 2183552 — The semaphore timeout period has expired. (121.)
00:14:42.34 – ! Write recoverable (1/3) error at LBN = 2183680 — The semaphore timeout period has expired. (121.)
00:14:56.28 – ! Write recoverable (1/3) error at LBN = 2279936 — The semaphore timeout period has expired. (121.)
00:15:00.67 – ! Write recoverable (1/3) error at LBN = 2280064 — The semaphore timeout period has expired. (121.)

Evidently this USB stick has some problems. The errors are not sequential suggesting that the NAND blocks are all affected, The test was abandoned as the ETA was growing above 24 hours to complete.

CHKDSK /R

The type of the file system is NTFS.
Cannot lock current drive.

Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another
process. Chkdsk may run if this volume is dismounted first.
ALL OPENED HANDLES TO THIS VOLUME WOULD THEN BE INVALID.
Would you like to force a dismount on this volume? (Y/N) y
Volume dismounted. All opened handles to this volume are now invalid.
Volume label is Gold-2TB.

Stage 1: Examining basic file system structure …
256 file records processed.
File verification completed.
Phase duration (File record verification): 8.03 milliseconds.
0 large file records processed.
Phase duration (Orphan file record recovery): 0.55 milliseconds.
0 bad file records processed.
Phase duration (Bad file record checking): 0.35 milliseconds.

Stage 2: Examining file name linkage …
Correcting error in index $SDH for file 9.
CHKDSK discovered free space marked as allocated in the bitmap for index $SDH for file 9.
Sorting index $SDH in file 9.
278 index entries processed.
Index verification completed.
Phase duration (Index verification): 86.65 milliseconds.
0 unindexed files scanned.
Phase duration (Orphan reconnection): 0.30 milliseconds.
0 unindexed files recovered to lost and found.
Phase duration (Orphan recovery to lost and found): 3.03 milliseconds.
0 reparse records processed.
0 reparse records processed.
Phase duration (Reparse point and Object ID verification): 0.70 milliseconds.

Stage 3: Examining security descriptors …
Repairing the unreadable security descriptors data stream.
A disk read error occurred 80000016
Insufficient disk space to fix the security descriptors data stream.
Unable to read the security descriptors data stream.
An unspecified error occurred (6e74667363686b2e 17ff).

FAILED

It seems that the file system keeps disappearing. Now when the stick is attempted to be used, it caused the system to failed to recognize it.

I am more speculating that the flash array may be faulty which is what is causing the problems. All USB sticks have a controller and one flash memory chip. The controller is not that complex. The NAND array is more likely to be problematic. The cheapest NAND is QLC which is mass produced. In both failed USB sticks the device is still recognized but the flash array seems to be at issue. The evidence suggests that the smallest capacity models are more likely to be successful.

Chkdsk was executed in read/write mode.

Checking file system on N:
Volume label is Gold-2TB.

Stage 1: Examining basic file system structure …
256 file records processed. File verification completed.
Phase duration (File record verification): 11.36 milliseconds.
0 large file records processed. Phase duration (Orphan file record recovery): 2.82 milliseconds.
0 bad file records processed. Phase duration (Bad file record checking): 2.68 milliseconds.

Stage 2: Examining file name linkage …
278 index entries processed. Index verification completed.
Phase duration (Index verification): 47.44 milliseconds.

Phase duration (Orphan reconnection): 6.36 milliseconds.

Phase duration (Orphan recovery to lost and found): 16.19 milliseconds.
0 reparse records processed. 0 reparse records processed. Phase duration (Reparse point and Object ID verification): 7.88 milliseconds.

Stage 3: Examining security descriptors …
Cleaning up 1 unused index entries from index $SII of file 0x9.
Cleaning up 1 unused index entries from index $SDH of file 0x9.
Cleaning up 1 unused security descriptors.
Security descriptor verification completed.
Phase duration (Security descriptor verification): 18.02 milliseconds.
11 data files processed. Phase duration (Data attribute verification): 1.59 milliseconds.
The data written out is different from what is being read back
at offset 0x1e847fffe00 for 0x200 bytes.
An unspecified error occurred (6e74667363686b2e 164d).

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